In 2015, global sales of SUVs overtook the "lower medium car" segment, to become the largest market segment, accounting for 22.9% of "light vehicle" sales in 2015.[85] The following year, worldwide SUV sales experienced further growth of 22%. The world's fastest growing SUV markets in 2014-2015 were: China (+ 47.9%), Italy (+ 48.6%), Spain (+ 42%), Portugal (+ 54.8 %) and Thailand (+ 56.4%).[85] The SUV segment further grew to 26% of the global passenger car market in 2016, then to 36.8% of the market in Q1–Q3 of 2017.[87][88][85]

In late November 2018, for the 2019 model year, the U.S. market Prius lineup introduced an all-wheel drive model featuring Toyota's E-Four system. This has been available for the Japanese market Prius since 2015 and the hybrid versions of the RAV4 and Lexus NX.[70] Also, the Prius received a facelift with redesigned headlights and taillights, which was released in Japan on December 17, 2018.[71]
Prius family sales also set a record in Japan in March 2012. Accounting for the conventional Prius and Prius α sales, a total of 45,496 units were sold in March 2012, becoming the highest monthly sales ever for any model in Japan since 1997, and representing a market share of 9% of all new car registrations excluding kei cars. The Toyota Aqua sold 29,156 units, ranking as the third top selling car that month. Together, all Prius family vehicles sold 74,652 units, representing 15% of monthly new car sales in March 2012.[137][138] With a total of 247,230 vehicles sold during the first quarter of 2012, the Toyota Prius family became the third top selling nameplate in the world in terms of total global sales, after the Toyota Corolla (300,800 units) and the Ford Focus (277,000 units).[139][140]
The Collins English Dictionary defines sport(s) utility vehicle as a "powerful vehicle with four-wheel drive that can be driven over rough ground"[11] or "a high-powered car with four-wheel drive, originally designed for off-road use",[12][13] but the citations quoted by Collins are few. The Chambers Dictionary has no entry for sport utility vehicle.[14]
From 2005 to 2009, the second generation Prius had been built by FAW-Toyota in the city of Changchun for the Chinese market.[50] It was reported that a total of 2,152 Priuses were sold in 2006 and 414 in 2007. The relatively low sales was blamed on high price, about US$15,000 higher than the equivalent in Japan or the US, caused by high duties on imported parts.[51] In early March 2008, Toyota cut the price of Prius by up to eight percent or US$3,000 to CN¥259,800 (US$36,500). It was thought that the sales dropped as a result of both a lack of acceptance and increased competition. The Toyota Prius Hybrid was exported to China from 2007.[52] Toyota sold about 1,192,000-second generation Priuses worldwide.[9]
Several derogatory/pejorative terms for SUVs are based on the combination of an affluent suburb name and "tractor", particularly for expensive vehicles from luxury brands. Examples include "Toorak Tractor" (Melbourne, Australia),[93][94] "Chelsea Tractor" (London, England)[95] and "Remuera Tractor" (Auckland, New Zealand). These terms relate to the theory that four-wheel drive capabilities are not required by affluent SUV owners and that the SUV is purchased as a status symbol rather than for practical reasons.
On the open road, the primary power source is the internal combustion engine. When maximum power is required, for example to overtake, the traction electric motor is used to assist. This increases the available power for a short period, giving the effect of having a larger engine than actually installed. In most applications, the combustion engine is switched off when the car is slow or stationary thereby reducing curbside emissions.

Nonetheless, unibody SUVs remained rare until the 1984 Jeep Cherokee (XJ) was intruduced and became a sales success. The introduction of the 1993 Jeep Grand Cherokee resulted in all Jeep SUV models using unibody construction,[28] with many other brands following suit since the mid-1990s. Today, most SUVs in production use a unibody construction and relatively few models continue to use a body-on-frame construction.
With all the tech built into Prius, you’re not lost—you're exploring. Boost your journeys with the available 11.6-in. HD multimedia display, and discover a soundtrack for each outing with Entune™ Premium JBL® Audio. The available color Head-Up Display (HUD) projects important information right on the windshield to take your driving experience to the next level.
Regenerate Braking.[further explanation needed]The drivetrain can be used to convert kinetic energy (from the moving car) into stored electrical energy (batteries). The same electric motor that powers the drivetrain is used to resist the motion of the drivetrain. This applied resistance from the electric motor causes the wheel to slow down and simultaneously recharge the batteries.
Just before and during World War II, around the world, prototypes and low-volume production examples began to appear of cars with sedan or station-wagon type bodies on rugged, off-road capable four-wheel drive chassis, such as the 1936 Kurogane Type 95 from Japan, the 1938 GAZ-61 from Russia and the 1941 Volkswagen Kommandeurswagen from Germany. An early predecessor to the design of modern SUVs,[citation needed] was the 1940 Humber Heavy Utility, a four-wheel drive off-road vehicle built on the chassis of the Humber Super Snipe passenger car.[53]
Prius family sales also set a record in Japan in March 2012. Accounting for the conventional Prius and Prius α sales, a total of 45,496 units were sold in March 2012, becoming the highest monthly sales ever for any model in Japan since 1997, and representing a market share of 9% of all new car registrations excluding kei cars. The Toyota Aqua sold 29,156 units, ranking as the third top selling car that month. Together, all Prius family vehicles sold 74,652 units, representing 15% of monthly new car sales in March 2012.[137][138] With a total of 247,230 vehicles sold during the first quarter of 2012, the Toyota Prius family became the third top selling nameplate in the world in terms of total global sales, after the Toyota Corolla (300,800 units) and the Ford Focus (277,000 units).[139][140]
With all the tech built into Prius, you’re not lost—you're exploring. Boost your journeys with the available 11.6-in. HD multimedia display, and discover a soundtrack for each outing with Entune™ Premium JBL®  Audio. The available color Head-Up Display (HUD) projects important information right on the windshield to take your driving experience to the next level.

Fuel efficient SUVs are something of a contradiction. The big car manufacturers understand that the battle for the best SUV will include the question of fuel efficiency. Obviously, a smaller SUV will be more fuel efficient (although the smaller luxury SUVs tend to drink fuel), even so it may consume more fuel than a large sedan. From a study conducted by our analysts, available in an infographic on http://suv.reviewitonline.net/fuel-efficient-suvs/, it is not surprising that the most fuel efficient 2012 SUVs, and 2013 SUVS, are Crossover SUVs with the Nissan Juke SUV Crossover and Mazda CX-5 SUV Crossover providing the most fuel efficient ride.
^ Jump up to: a b c d "Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs): Trend of sales by HEV models from 1999–2010". Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center (US DoE). Retrieved 5 March 2011. Total registered electric hybrids in the US is 1,888,971 vehicles until December 2010. (Click and open the Excel file for the detail by year for each model) Sales 1999–2010

Three-row SUVs have become the vehicle of choice for many families. They provide all-weather traction and roomy interiors without looking like a minivan. The Highlander stands out in this crowd with its good performance, fuel economy, and reliability. It benefits from Goldilocks sizing: large enough to accommodate eight passengers but small enough for relatively easy parking. The Highlander rides well, and its handling is secure. Recent updates have improved fuel economy and power, adding to the Highlander’s appeal. And advanced safety features are now standard across the lineup. Overall, the Highlander is a rational choice that will appeal to the majority of buyers looking for a well-rounded, highly functional three-row SUV.
Developing a BEV infrastructure would provide the advantage of virtually unrestricted highway range. Since many destinations are within 100 km of a major highway, BEV technology could reduce the need for expensive battery systems. Unfortunately, private use of the existing electrical system is almost universally prohibited. Besides, the technology for such electrical infrastructure is largely outdated and, outside some cities, not widely distributed (see Conduit current collection, trams, electric rail, trolleys, third rail). Updating the required electrical and infrastructure costs could perhaps be funded by toll revenue or by dedicated transportation taxes.

A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor,[1] e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged. Other means to store energy include pressurized fluid in hydraulic hybrids.
Car manufacturers were keen to promote SUV sales over other types of cars due, to higher profits in the segment. An SUV could be sold with a profit margin of US$10,000 or more (US$18,000 per SUV in the case of the Ford Excursion), while compact cars were often sold at a loss of a few hundred dollars per car.[77][78][79] As a result, several manufacturing plants were converted from car production to SUV production (such as the General Motors Arlington, Texas plant in 1996) and many long-running U.S. sedan models were discontinued.[80][81][82]
Regenerate Braking.[further explanation needed]The drivetrain can be used to convert kinetic energy (from the moving car) into stored electrical energy (batteries). The same electric motor that powers the drivetrain is used to resist the motion of the drivetrain. This applied resistance from the electric motor causes the wheel to slow down and simultaneously recharge the batteries.

Rising oil prices caused by the Arab Spring led to increased sales of the Prius in the first quarter of 2011, but the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami led to a production stoppage. Production restarted several days later, but output was hindered due to shortages from parts suppliers.[119] Nevertheless, during the 2011 Japanese fiscal year (1 April 2011 through 31 March 2012), the Prius family sold 310,484 units, including sales of the Prius α, launched in May 2011, and the Toyota Aqua, launched in December, allowing the Prius brand to become the best-selling vehicle in Japan for the third-consecutive year.[120]


Presented at the April 2003 New York International Auto Show, for the 2004 US model year, the NHW20 Prius was a complete redesign. It became a compact liftback, sized between the Corolla and the Camry, with redistributed mechanical and interior space significantly increasing rear-seat legroom and luggage room. The second generation Prius is more environmentally friendly than the previous model (according to the EPA), and is 6 inches (150 mm) longer than the previous version.[38][39] Its more aerodynamic Kammback body balances length and wind resistance, resulting in a drag coefficient of Cd=0.26.[40] The development effort, led by chief engineer Shigeyuki Hori, led to 530 patents for the vehicle.[41]
Current vehicle bodies are designed around the mechanicals of existing engine/transmission setups. It is restrictive and far from ideal to install petro-hydraulic mechanicals into existing bodies not designed for hydraulic setups. One research project's goal is to create a blank paper design new car, to maximize the packaging of petro-hydraulic hybrid components in the vehicle. All bulky hydraulic components are integrated into the chassis of the car. One design has claimed to return 130 mpg in tests by using a large hydraulic accumulator which is also the structural chassis of the car. The small hydraulic driving motors are incorporated within the wheel hubs driving the wheels and reversing to claw-back kinetic braking energy. The hub motors eliminates the need for friction brakes, mechanical transmissions, drive shafts and U joints, reducing costs and weight. Hydrostatic drive with no friction brakes are used in industrial vehicles.[44] The aim is 170 mpg in average driving conditions. Energy created by shock absorbers and kinetic braking energy that normally would be wasted assists in charging the accumulator. A small fossil fuelled piston engine sized for average power use charges the accumulator. The accumulator is sized at running the car for 15 minutes when fully charged. The aim is a fully charged accumulator which will produce a 0-60 mph acceleration speed of under 5 seconds using four wheel drive.[45][46][47]

While hybrids benefit from engine-shut-off and more EV (electric-only) driving in the city, the latest generation Toyota hybrid systems feature highly efficient gasoline engines for highway driving; the system can even enter EV mode while cruising on a highway in certain conditions. Toyota’s hybrid system will seamlessly determine and optimize what combination of electric and gas engine power is required based on your driving conditions.
Toyota unveiled the Prius c concept at the January 2011 North American International Auto Show. The Prius c has a lower list price and is smaller than the previous Prius hatchback. The production version was unveiled at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show as the Toyota Aqua, and was launched in Japan in December 2011.[94] The Prius c was released in the US and Canada in March 2012,[95][96] and in April 2012 in Australia and New Zealand.[97][98] The Prius c is not available in Europe, where instead, Toyota is selling the Toyota Yaris Hybrid since June 2012.[99] The Prius c and the Yaris Hybrid share the same powertrain.[100] The Aqua ranked as the second best selling car in Japan in 2012 after the Prius brand, as Toyota reports together sales of the conventional Prius and the Prius α.[101][102] When sales of these two Prius models are broken down, the Toyota Aqua ranked as the top selling model in Japan, including kei cars, with the Aqua leading monthly sales since February through December 2012.[103][104] Thereafter, the Aqua has been the top selling new car in Japan for three years running, from 2013 to 2015,[105][106][107] and it is considered the most successful nameplate launch in Japan in the last 20 years.[108]
IMPORTANT NOTE: This informational calculator is a comparison tool that allows you to compare the relative estimated fuel consumption and CO2 profile of an identically operated Toyota gas vehicle to a Toyota hybrid vehicle, using the Canadian federal government’s vehicle fuel consumption test methodology. The government methodology is a 5 cycle test carried out in a laboratory on a chassis dynamometer. The 5 cycles are: city test, highway test, cold temperature operation, air conditioner use, and higher speeds with more rapid acceleration and braking. The assumptions behind each test are more fully explained on the current Natural Resources Canada website: https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/efficiency/transportation/21008. These tests attempt, within the confines of a theoretical laboratory test, to simulate 5 of the most common real world driving conditions. However, there are many other significant common real world variables that impact fuel consumption and no laboratory test is able to take into account all the variables that will affect individual fuel consumption. Your vehicle’s fuel consumption and CO2 profile will vary from the test ratings, depending on how, where and when you drive. The following factors will significantly affect the fuel consumption/CO2 profile of your vehicle: your driving style and behaviour, how you accelerate and brake, how fast you drive, overall age and condition of your vehicle, temperature, weather, traffic and road conditions, using drive systems like AWD or four wheel drive, using air conditioning and powered accessories installed on your vehicle. In addition, small variations in vehicle manufacturing will cause fuel consumption differences in the same make and model, and some vehicles do not attain optimal fuel consumption until they are “run in” for about 6,000 to 10,000 km.
The Prime has an EPA-rated all-electric range of 25 mi (40 km), over twice the range of the first generation model, and an EPA rated fuel economy of 133 mpg‑e (25.9 kW⋅h/100 mi) in all-electric mode (EV mode), the highest MPGe rating in EV mode of any vehicle rated by EPA with an internal combustion engine.[89][14] Among all-electric cars, only the Hyundai Ioniq Electric has a higher energy efficiency, rated at 136 mpg‑e (25.3 kW⋅h/100 mi; 15.7 kW⋅h/100 km).[14][15]
Since its inception, the Toyota Prius has been among the best fuel economy vehicles available in the United States, and for the model year 2012, the Prius family has three models among the 10 most fuel-efficient cars sold in the country as rated by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[172] After the Honda Insight first generation was discontinued in September 2006, the Prius liftback became the most fuel-efficient car sold in the American market,[172] [173][174] until it was topped by the Chevrolet Volt in December 2010, as the plug-in hybrid was rated by EPA with an overall combined city/highway gasoline-electricity fuel economy of 60 mpg‑US (3.9 L/100 km; 72 mpg‑imp) equivalent (MPG-e).[175] According to the EPA, for the model year 2012, and when only gasoline-powered vehicles are considered (excluding all-electric cars), the Prius c ranks as the most fuel-efficient compact car, the Prius liftback as the most fuel-efficient midsize car, and the Prius v as the most fuel-efficient midsize station wagon.[176]

There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle.[1] Dictionaries, automotive experts, and journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either.[1]

The Prius is the most fuel-efficient hybrid around, getting an EPA-rated 56 mpg combined in Eco trim. That’s thanks to Toyota’s tried-and-true Hybrid Synergy Drive system, and a 1.8-liter four-cylinder engine that achieves a 40 percent thermal efficiency, which is much higher than most engines. The Prius also achieves a very low drag coefficient of 0.24, meaning it has fairly low aerodynamic drag, which helps improve efficiency. Toyota’s designers managed to do that while maintaining a roomy cabin and useful hatchback shape.

Redesigned for 2018, the X3 tops its class. This luxury compact SUV combines driving enjoyment, comfort, slick technology, and utility in one appealing package. Its power is smooth and nearly immediate when you press the gas pedal, even with the base turbo four-cylinder engine. (Drivers can step up to the 355-hp M40i for truly exhilarating performance.) Sharp, sporty handling encourages drivers to seek curvy roads. The firm suspension makes you feel safe and confident, and yet the X3 does a good job soaking up ruts and bumps. Because it’s extremely quiet, richly appointed, and offers supportive seats and an easy-to-use infotainment system, the X3 is certain to delight those looking for an upscale SUV that is polished and fun to drive.
The Prius uses an all-electric A/C compressor for cooling, an industry first.[44] Combined with a smaller and lighter NiMH battery, the XW20 is more powerful and more efficient than the XW10.[45] In the US, the battery pack of 2004 and later models is warranted for 150,000 miles (240,000 km) or 10 years in states that have adopted the stricter California emissions control standards, and 100,000 miles (160,000 km) or 8 years elsewhere.[46][47] The warranty for hybrid components is 100,000 miles (160,000 km) or 8 years.[48]
Land Rover promises the plug-in hybrid powertrain doesn’t compromise off-road ability, and it even claims the P400e’s all-electric mode allows for greater control at low speeds on slippery surfaces (on the road, Land Rover claims 31 miles of all-electric range). This plug-in hybrid SUV can wade into 35.4 inches of water, according to Land Rover, without sacrificing comfort. It also sports a luxurious, leather-lined interior and Land Rover’s latest InControl Touch Pro Duo infotainment system, with two 10.0-inch touchscreens.

The petro-hydraulic hybrid system has faster and more efficient charge/discharge cycling than petro-electric hybrids and is also cheaper to build. The accumulator vessel size dictates total energy storage capacity and may require more space than an electric battery set. Any vehicle space consumed by a larger size of accumulator vessel may be offset by the need for a smaller sized charging engine, in HP and physical size.


Several models of carryall wagons began to be offered with four-wheel drive, beginning in 1949 when the Willys Jeep Station Wagon introduced the option of four-wheel drive. This four-wheel drive version of the Willys Jeep is often credited with being the first SUV.[59][60] Four-wheel drive versions of the Chevrolet Suburban were introduced for 1955, followed by the International Harvester Travelall in 1956 (credited as being the first full-size SUV)[61] and the Power Wagon Town Wagon in 1957.[61][62]
Toyota’s hybrid systems are designed to be just as safe as traditional drivetrains, thanks in part to rigorous Canada Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Hybrids cause no greater concern for passengers or rescuers in the event of a collision than non-hybrid vehicles. The batteries are sealed in a protective metal case and insulated from the vehicle body. Additionally, hybrid battery cables are shrouded in bright-orange cladding as a warning to emergency workers, and Toyota works closely with first responders to provide information and material for training on how to work with hybrids. You also have the peace of mind knowing that all Toyota hybrid vehicles come standard with Toyota Safety Sense, an active safety suite which includes pre-collision technology to help prevent an accident from occurring in the first place. 

The second generation Prius plug-in, called Toyota Prius Prime in the U.S. and Prius PHV in Japan,[86] was developed in parallel with the standard fourth generation Prius model (XW50) released in December 2015.[87] The model was released to retail customers in the U.S. in November 2016,[13] followed by Japan in February 2017.[82] In the American market, unlike the first generation model, the Prius Prime will be available in all 50 states.[87][88] Cumulative global sales of both Prius plug-in generations totaled 79,300 units at the end of January 2017.[12] The U.S. is the top selling market, with 46,133 units sold since inception through January 2017, of which, 3,788 units are second generation Prius Prime cars.[83][84]
Dual Power. Power can come from either the engine, motor or both depending on driving circumstances. Additional power to assist the engine in accelerating or climbing might be provided by the electric motor. Or more commonly, a smaller electric motor provides all of the power for low-speed driving conditions and is augmented by the engine at higher speeds.
In 1997 Toyota released the first series-hybrid bus sold in Japan.[56] GM introduced the Chevy Volt series plug-in hybrid in 2010, aiming for an all-electric range of 40 mi (64 km),[57] though this car also has a mechanical connection between the engine and drivetrain[58]. Supercapacitors combined with a lithium ion battery bank have been used by AFS Trinity in a converted Saturn Vue SUV vehicle. Using supercapacitors they claim up to 150 mpg in a series-hybrid arrangement.[59]
The basic principle with hybrid vehicles is that the different motors work better at different speeds; the electric motor is more efficient at producing torque, or turning power, and the combustion engine is better for maintaining high speed (better than typical electric motor). Switching from one to the other at the proper time while speeding up yields a win-win in terms of energy efficiency, as such that translates into greater fuel efficiency, for example.[citation needed]
^ Jump up to: a b "Monthly Plug-In Sales Scorecard". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 19 February 2017. See annual sales in 2016. First generation Prius Plug-in Hybrid sales totaled 52 units in 2016 through September, when dealerships run out of stock. Deliveries of the second generation Prius Prime began in November 2016. A total of 3,788 Prius Prime cars have been sold between November 2016 and January 2017.
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